The Rise of the Luffing Tower Crane

Luffing-Jib Cranes Vs. Tower Cranes

According to studies by Construcciones Metálicas COMANSA S.A. & Vandooran Tower Crane Consultants (separate studies), we have analyzed the various aspects of both types of these cranes.

Luffing jib tower crane and level jib tower crane are two kinds of common models. Both models are widely used but they differ in their structure, operating principle and application field. Luffing jib tower crane is mainly used in large project and industrial equipment installing field where large lifting capacity, high perching accuracy and high safety are required for lifting large members and equipment component.

Level jib tower crane is mainly used in common civil building field where fast lifting and inaccurate perching and resting areas are required for lifting building materials. Both models have advantages and disadvantages in different application fields, therefore we can plan a key role in determining which model should be selected. Luffing-jib cranes are specially demanded for tall buildings on congested sites. They have a very short counter-jib and a variable working radius, which permit high productivity in extremely narrow spaces. 

Some of the key reasons for using luffing jib cranes

Luffing cranes, especially over the last 15 years, have helped to solve a lot of inner city construction problems when it comes to the fight for precious space in and around a construction site.  Luffing crane has a special design and the jib has the capability of being lift standing vertical in the air at a minimum of 5m radius from the mass section (Of course, this is used as an example, and depending on the type of crane, this could vary).  This is the opposite to the flat top crane which must be left parallel to the project and at the fixed radius of the jib already pre-determined.

This has solved many issues for projects where over sailing rights are not possible or very difficult to achieve in cities around the world, like in the United Kingdom.  These rights are not usually given when the loads being carried by the crane must be brought overtop of neighbouring building which are public, government or have a heavy population of the general public such as public transport stations.  The luffing crane allows the jib and the load to stay within the construction site boundaries at all times and ensure the safety of the general public.

1.       Luffing cranes are usually the best solution when a number of cranes are working on the same construction site, to avoid any kind of crash with other cranes or the surrounding buildings. With their variable working radius, they don’t interfere in the working area of the other cranes on site and they can be parked with a very reduced radius. However, construction site managers should have prior experience in supervising several luffing cranes operating simultaneously.

 2.       Luffing-jib cranes can improve material handling cycles in the jobsite, using them like auxiliary cranes to the principal tower cranes, reducing the construction time.

 3.       Usually, the maximum load is bigger than a tower crane’s.

 4.       In some areas, local laws make luffing-jib cranes necessary. For instance, London doesn’t allow any crane to fly over the surrounding spaces when they are working in a jobsite, and luffing jib-cranes are very demanded because you can move the jib from the horizontal position up to the total vertical position.

Drawbacks of using luffing jib cranes

But there are some disadvantages of the luffing cranes when you compare them to a tower

Crane. Although luffing cranes are a major problem solver when it comes to working within major city centres or enclosed construction sites they can greatly affect performance and economics of a construction site not hindered by tight jurisdictions.

1.       Luffing cranes are generally more expensive than the traditional tower cranes. The tower frames of a luffing crane are stronger, and the luffing mechanisms are much bigger than the hoist system of a tower crane. Of course, the technology applied to move the jib, counterweights, is the highest.

 2.       The cost of assembling and disassembling are much higher too.

 3.       Luffing cranes are more receptive to environmental changes such as the wind and the jib of a ‘luffer’ acts as wall to the wind. So, the restrictions of the tower are higher.

 4.       Since luffing cranes don’t have trolley mechanism and the movement is done by the jib, luffing cranes usually take longer than tower cranes to finish the job

 The major impact Luffing cranes have on a construction site is the time that it takes for them to perform movements necessary to lift an object from point A to point B.  The Luffing crane must perform more movements mechanically in order to raise the object to the desired height and radius. A flat top crane has a fixed jib set to a pre-determined radius, in order for them to perform a lift they must simply reel in the rope to lift the object to the desired height and move a trolley down a track in order to move the object to the desired radius.

With a luffing crane you do not have the trolley moving quickly down a track, instead you must lift the entire jib using an ‘A’ frame positioned at the rear of the crane top and move it up and down until you have reached your desired radius, while at the same time reeling in the ropes to gain the appropriate height for your load.  This takes a lot more time to perform these tasks and can be much more difficult especially if the driver is working blind and is not able to see the load at the end of their ropes.

To summarize, the luffing crane, like all other tower cranes, has its pros and cons so when you are designing your site you must ensure that it is the right crane for the job.  In tight construction zones such as inner cities a luffing crane may be your best call. If you make the wrong choice you will find as a result that there is a lot of time and money wasted on the project. In the UAE, Of course it depends on the project’s requirement, for example high rise towers, which are very popular here, require luffing cranes with a big capacity. Luffing cranes are special as they allow you to manoeuvre in tight spaces, when you are surrounded by neighbouring buildings.

The Verdict

According to NBM & CW, the comparison can be summarized in details in the following table (where a large power station is used as a benchmark):

Brief comparison between the two models in large power station construction field

Description Luffing jib tower crane
(Large Capacity)
Level jib tower crane
(Large Capacity)
Comparison results
Luffing jib type Level jib type
Application field Widely used and it can replace level jib tower crane Relatively narrow in application field and it can not replace luffing jib tower crane Superior inferior
Laying out flexibility Good Bad Superior Inferior
Design, manufacture and manufacturing cost Complex design and manufacture and high manufacturing cost Relatively easy and low manufacturing cost Inferior Superior
Safety High Relatively low Superior Inferior
Anti-wind ability Strong Weak Superior Inferior
Perching accuracy and efficiency High Low Superior Inferior
Lifting and derricking speed Fast Slow Inferior Superior
Lifting capacity at large radius and the same moment Large Small Superior Inferior
Maximum radius at the same moment Small Large Inferior Superior
Safety and suitability of cooperative operation Strong Weak Superior Inferior
Erecting and dismantling cost Low High Superior Inferior


As the above comparison, luffing jib tower crane has great advantage over level jib tower crane in power station construction field, which has been confirmed by more than 100 power stations construction in china. Level jib tower crane is widely used in plant construction of power station as auxiliary tool while luffing jib tower crane definitely predominates in boiler lifting. It is not the only choice to use luffing jib tower crane for boiler lifting, which can be achieved by cooperation between large crawling crane, furnace handling crane and large level jib tower crane but also economic efficiency, safety and plane layout need to be carefully considered. 

Case Study: Potain’s MR 418

The Potain MR 418 is designed to get you set up and working faster while still providing the capacity and compact footprint that our cranes are known for.

A new on-board control system allows for operation mere minutes after assembly is completed, and the uniquely mounted luffing mechanism and hoist ensures there is plenty of room for operation, even in the tightest of jobsites. Perfect for power plants or high-rise buildings, including super-tall structures

  • Total luffing time: 1 min 15 sec
  • Maximum hoisting speed: 254 meters per minute
  • Maximum capacity: 24 t
  • Maximum operating hook radius: 60 m
  • Maximum capacity at 60 m: 5 t
  • Maximum line speed: 254 m/min
  • 1 part / 2 part load block reeving
  • New mechanisms : 150/180 LVF 120 or 270/320 LVF 120 hoist options available, 1 part / 2 part load block reeving , Smooth movements due to frequency control technology, extremely accurate and reactive luffing movements through VVF technology, very high speed, high capacity hoist winches maximize productivity at very tall working heights

The Biggest luffing for Potain: MR 608

The MR 605 is the largest capacity luffing jib crane in the Potain line. The crane is specially designed for sites with very high working heights and is equipped with powerful mechanisms to ensure optimal work speeds.




Sales boost for crane manufacturers

The majority of crane manufacturers have seen sales grow in the first quarter of 2018 compared to the same period last year. Tadano’s fiscal year results showed a decrease in sales, but the company anticipates a strong year ahead.


Tadano sales revenue for its fiscal year 2017, the twelve months ended March 31, stood at ¥173.7bn ($1.57bn), down 3.3% year-on-year. Over the same period, net profit dropped ¥2.5bn to ¥9.39bn.

Total sales of Tadano mobile cranes decreased by 9.7% from the previous year to ¥99bn. Mobile crane sales in Japan fell by 15.2% to ¥38.2bn. Outside of Japan, there was a decrease of 5.8% with sales totaling ¥60.8bn.

Sales of truck loader cranes were stable, up 0.2%, generating ¥19.68bn. Tadano’s revenue from the sales of aerial work platform increased 14.2% year-on-year to ¥24.68bn.

Net sales from other businesses, such as parts, repairs, used cranes and other products, amounted to ¥30.3bn: up 11.4% compared the previous fiscal year. Tadano said that sales of used cranes increased both in Japan and outside Japan.

For the fiscal year 2018, the manufacturer forecasts sales revenue to grow by 10.5% to ¥192bn. It anticipates a 25.7% increase in mobile cranes and 1.1% increase in truck loader cranes.


The Manitowoc Company has reported first-quarter 2018 net sales of $386.1m, up 26% compared to the same period in 2017. The increase was attributed to improved crane shipments across all regions, with the US and European markets generating the majority of the increase.

First-quarter orders rose by 10% year-on-year of $536m, while backlog totaled $756.6m on March 31, 2018, up 49% from the first-quarter 2017. The company reported a net loss of $10m, in the same period last year the net loss stood at $36m.

Barry Pennypacker, president and chief executive officer of The Manitowoc Company, said: “The global crane market is reaching an inflection point, and it shows in our order rates year-to-date. However, like many capital goods companies, we are beginning to see headwinds in terms of materials inflation and supply chain challenges.

“Also, foreign currency exchange rates are putting pressure on our margins, most notably on European produced cranes that we sell in the US. We are actively managing these challenges and aggressively taking pricing actions to ensure that we deliver our full-year EBITDA guidance of $100 to $120m. We are clearly making meaningful progress in transforming Manitowoc into a leaner, more profitable crane company.”


Terex Cranes has reported crane sales of $314m in the first quarter of 2018, up 19% compared to the same period in the previous year. The manufacturer said this was due to higher demand and a favourable impact of foreign exchange rates.

Operating performance improved compared to the first quarter of last year, however our results were negatively impacted by disruptions in the company’s mobile crane factories caused by supply chain challenges. Terex said it is working closely with its suppliers to address the issues.

Indications for future growth are positive, with Terex Cranes Q1 ending backlog up 58% versus 2017.

Steve Filipov, president, Terex Cranes said: “Global crane markets were fairly stable with pockets of growth as expected. We executed well in Towers and Utilities, and we continued to roll out exciting new products including our Demag AC 300-6 all terrain crane and Terex CTT 472-20 flat top tower crane.”

Overall, Terex Corporation reported a strong start to 2018 with first quarter 2018 sales of $1.3bn, up 25% compared to the same period in 2017.

Terex group as a whole, saw sales revenue climb from $1,01bn in Q1 2017 to $1.26bn. Income from continuous operations stood at $47.6m, compared to a loss of $60.3m in the first quarter of last year.

“Terex significantly improved its first quarter earnings per share compared to last year,” said John Garrison, Terex president and CEO. “This strong financial performance reflects the improvements made to our operations and capital structure, and broad-based improvements in our global markets.”

“Aerial Work Platforms (AWP) and Materials Processing (MP) are off to a great start. Our Cranes segment improved compared to the prior year, but performed below our expectations in the quarter.”


Load handling equipment manufacturer Hiab, subsidiary of Cargotec, has received orders totaling €307m in the first quarter of 2018, up 7% year-on-year.

“The demand for Hiab’s load handling equipment was supported in the United States and Europe by the construction activity, which remained at a good level. The demand continued to be strong in the US and accelerated in Europe,” said Hiab.

Hiab’s first quarter sales increased by 2% and totalled €276m. Service sales grew by 2% to €67m, representing 24% percent of sales.

Operating profit for Hiab in the first quarter decreased from the comparison period to €36.1m, mainly due to the weakening of the US dollar.

As a group Cargotec saw orders increasing by 1% in the first quarter of 2018, reaching €863m, while sales dropped by 2% to €773m.


The Palfinger Group’s revenue stood at €394.2m in the first quarter of 2018, 8.9% higher than the same period of the previous year.

The Land segment’s revenue increased by 13.6% year on year to €337.8m.

The growth achieved in the Land segment was based on the significant expansion of business in the regions EMEA and Americas. In Europe, the acquisition of the Danish distribution partner Palfinger Danmark AS, which took place at the end of January 2017, generated positive momentum as well.

In North America, Palfinger recorded “pleasing increases” in business in recent months. “In Asia, particularly in China, the good partnership with Sany has proved to be the foundation for continued business expansion. In Russia/CIS, local value creation facilitated additional growth in the first quarter of 2018, despite the challenging economic environment,” the manufacturer said.

In the first quarter of 2018, the Sea segment’s revenue decreased to 56.4m, which corresponds to a decline of 12.7%.

BIM’s benefits are clear, but it’s still confusing GCC construction

Building information modelling (BIM) is seen as vital for the engineering and construction industry as it looks to digital transformation to tackle inherent challenges such as budget overspend, project delays, and quality control issues.

Governments have been mandating the use of BIM on infrastructure projects throughout Europe and beyond, to streamline major development projects and, in turn, increase productivity in the industry.

Job titles such as BIM manager, BIM co-ordinator, and BIM specialist are even starting to become more common, as the industry embraces the methodology.

Despite all of this attention, however, there are still the common misconceptions that BIM is simply 3D modelling, only for experts, and only used by a fraction of the teams on a development project. But why do these  misunderstandings persist?

Undervalued and under-utilised

One of the challenges for BIM is that it is surrounded by myths that deter certain teams that are involved in a development from adopting it.

While some still see BIM as simply a 3D modelling tool that is used primarily by design and construction teams, modern BIM is so much more than that. It forms a key part of a common data environment – capturing, storing, and sharing key information across an asset. And a connected BIM solution can also be used to link data and documentation, enabling an audit-like trail for objects within a model.

Even the long form of the acronym is confusing, with some uncertain whether the ‘M’ stands for modelling or management. The confusion likely results from the way in which the methodology has evolved and is now being used much more widely across a development.

BIM is also challenged by issues common to other software solutions, such as the reduced productivity that arises while people are yet to be trained on its proper use, the additional costs it entails, and the belief that it is here now but could be obsolete by tomorrow.

These are reasonable concerns: people do need to get used to the software, and data may need to be ported across from other systems, and this can take time; and there will be a financial cost associated with any new software. But these things need to be considered over the longer term. The time and cost savings – and other benefits – that  these solutions provide far outweigh the initial pain and price.

Here to stay

In the specific case of BIM, the data captured should provide a vital repository for information related to clash detection and asset handover, and also create a baseline of information to use when planning or preparing for future developments. Its obsolescence is negated by how BIM has evolved over time, as well as how it is being mandated as the solution of choice by governments, and increasingly by owners and clients globally – there is no doubt that BIM is here to stay.

Modern BIM is all about accessibility, extendibility, and collaboration. A connected BIM solution should help manage all the information about a development.

BIM must be able to be used by teams across the development, no matter how big or small. It needs to be able to work with multiple data sources, file formats, standards, and industry-recognised tools. It should also be accessible on numerous devices, whether the users are in the office or on site.

Overall, there needs to be better education about BIM and its many uses. This will be driven by the ongoing influx of digital skills  into the industry, which will see a greater reliance on technology for a number of different functions. However, the onus is also on BIM solutions themselves to evolve and to keep pace with requirements.

Modern BIM solutions need to provide the security, certifications, and disaster recovery needed to instil confidence in users. They need to be fast, reliable, and able to integrate with other solutions in a company’s technology ecosystem, regardless of where they are being used. Perhaps most importantly, BIM needs to be easy to use, so you do not have to be an expert to get what you need from the solution. Taken together, these attributes can encourage wider use of BIM across the industry.

Immensa says first UAE firm to submit 3D printing patent

Patent sought for innovation that aims to revolutionise the way regional construction companies and engineering firms approach urban design

mmensa Technology Labs has said it has submitted the first 3D printing related patent from a UAE-based company.

The patent – an Immensa proprietary method for the production of moulds for concrete and other aggregates using 3D printing – is an exclusive innovation that aims to revolutionise the way regional construction companies and engineering firms approach urban design.

Fahmi Al-Shawwa, CEO of Immensa Technology Labs, said: “We are proud to represent this great nation by filing the first 3D printing related patent from a UAE-based company.

“This process being patented is at the forefront of engineering innovation, and aligns with Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum’s Dubai 3D Printing Strategy. At Immensa, we constantly encourage our engineers to surpass their potentials, and we strive to offer them a positive and reinforcing environment for them to create and work in.”

The Dubai 3D Printing Strategy is an initiative that aims to exploit technology for the service of humanity and promote the status of the UAE and Dubai as a leading hub of 3D printing technology by the year 2030.

Engineers Edem Dugenboo and Elias El Dik of Immensa developed the proprietary process behind the patent.



Expo 2020 & the Construction industry – Is Expo the beginning or the end of the construction boom?

Projects worth $42.5bn (AED156bn) are being constructed across various UAE sectors for Expo 2020 Dubai, it has been revealed.

This headline alone, can turn many heads towards the importance of Expo 2020 and its impact on the construction sector. There have been many talks around Expo 2020 in recent years and there is barely anyone in the region who hasn’t heard about it.

In this article, we are discussing the value Expo 2020 in bringing to the region and more specifically to the construction industry. Before we get into any details, it is important to understand what Expo 2020 is and the impact other previous Expos have had on the economy of hosting countries.

What is Expo 2020?

According to Expo 2020 website, “Expo 2020 is a Universal Exposition to be hosted by Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, opening on October 20, 2020. The Bureau International des Expositions general assembly in Paris awarded Dubai as the host on November 27, 2013.”

Expos have been taking place since 1851 and according to Bureau International des Expositions “An Expo is a global event that aims at educating the public, sharing innovation, promoting progress and fostering cooperation. It is organized by a host country that invites other countries, companies, international organisations, the private sector, the civil society and the general public to participate. Due to the diversity of its participants, from top decision makers to children, Expos offer a multifaceted event where extraordinary exhibitions, diplomatic encounters, business meetings, public debates and live shows take place at the same time.” And based on their same publications, Expos are a unique event for the following reasons:

  • For the international community: Expo is a dialogue platform for progress and cooperation
  • For the general public: Expo is an educational and entertaining experience
  • For the host country: Expo is a tool for nation branding and development
  • For participants: Expo allows international outreach and economic opportunities

Based on the pints above and given Dubai’s current economic standpoint and its diverse business ecosystem, naturally it has become the home for Expo 2020.

Previous Expos and their impact on the economy of the host country

 In order to understand the value of Expo for Dubai and to forecast its impact on the construction sector, it is best to benchmark and look into previous Expos. The last Expo was held in Milan in 2015.

According to a report by Euler Hermes, ““In the short term, the positive momentum from Expo is expected to produce a value equal to +0.1% of the Italian GDP in 2015, concentrated in the third quarter,” said Ana Boata, European economist at Euler Hermes. “The expectation is a total GDP increase amounting to 0.7% in 2015 and to 1.1% in 2016, with the economic recovery speed remaining moderate”.

Apart from the positive effect on demand from abroad, the boost in domestic demand – after years of decline – is a positive sign. Consumer confidence levels are rising and durable goods purchases are again  increasing. The labor market is on the rise – with 295,000 new jobs- following an all-time-low in November 2014; the unemployment rate is expected to drop from 12.7% in 2014 to 12% in 2015, and further to 11% in 2016.

Many industries are benefiting from a positive Expo impact. Specifically, revenues from tourism-related sectors have increased, especially in Milan and the Lakes region. These higher revenues helped increase the turnover of companies in the service industry, with the highest peaks being registered by the wholesale and distribution sector (+4.2% YoY in the second quarter of 2015), hotels and catering (+2.9% YoY), transport-related sectors (+2.1% YoY) and commercial services (+1.3% YoY). Moreover, Expo encouraged the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) to a level of 6 billion euro between February and April, the highest quarterly figure achieved since the end of 2013”

Before Milan, the previous Expo was held at Shanghai in 2010, according to Gulf Business, “The Chinese city received around 73 million visitors in total, with numbers reaching 1.03 million in just one day (16 October, 2010), according to the BIE report, ‘Making an impact: The power of the World Expo’.

Six new subway lines were opened between 2008 and 2010 along with 4000 new taxis in the city. The revenue from the tourism sector rose 13 per cent year on year during the Spring festival to reach $332.7 million.

According to a Bloomberg report, the event may have generated tourism spending of more than 80 billion yuan ($13 billion) for Shanghai, and neighbouring cities along the Yangtze River.”

Just by looking at the previous 2 expos, it is quite evident that they have a positive impact on the construction sector and since Dubai’s economy is quite welcoming to the tourism industry, Expo 2020 is expected to attract a significant number of tourists and just during the Expo, it is expected to receive over 25 million people from all around the world.

Current construction work at Expo 2020

According to AMEinfo, “It’s the grandest of all shows and Dubai, host of the event, has not taken this responsibility lightly.

Route 2020 project with  tower cranes from NFT

When Dubai adopted its 2018 budget, spending $15.5 billion or some 20% more than 2017, it worried more about securing funds to host Expo 2020, than adding on a deficit of $1.7 billion.

The investment value of the Expo is estimated at 25 billion dirhams (Nearly $7bn).

Dubai’s budget sees more than 20% of it allocated to infrastructure spending, an increase of more than 40% from 2017.” Of course, the site of the Expo 2020 has been given significance budget by the government and over 100 countries are participating in constructing eye-catching and impressive pavilions for their countries to

attract investment. According to Arabian Business, New Zealand has committed $53 million to design, construct, operate and promote its presence at the six-month event.

According to Construction Global, “US$42.5bn of construct projects are currently underway in Dubai, UAE – designed for the nation’s Expo 2020.

The top 10 of the project amount to $32.7bn, accounting for almost 77% of the total, according to a BNC Network report.

The infrastructure and energy industries are constructing $17.4bn worth of projects, whilst housing construction comprises of $13.2bn of the total.

The BNC Construction Intelligence report claims that hospitality projects – such as hotels and theme parks – are costing $11bn.

The renovations being made on Phase One of the Al Maktoum International Airport are worth $8bn.”

Expo2020’s impact on the construction industry

According to Khaleej Times, “Preparations in the run-up to Expo 2020 are proving to be a catalyst for the UAE construction industry. The rise in oil prices is also beneficial for contractors since regional governments are beginning to restart old projects or invest in new infrastructure development.

However, contractors are not insulated from challenges – they face smaller margins, more competition in project bids, delayed payments and rise in the cost of doing business. There is also concern about the extent of project awards after all the Expo contracts have been let.

“There is a large amount of current activity but concerns remain about the volume of works after 2020. Meed Projects estimate that around 30 per cent of the $3.8 billion in construction contracts for the Expo have already been let, with another 60 per cent in the final procurement stage and expected to be let during 2018. The volume of new projects awarded across the UAE is expected to decline in 2019 and 2020,” says Alan Baker, JLL national director, project and development services – Mena.Sentiment in the UAE’s construction sector is optimistic as the region prepares for Expo 2020. According to Avin Gidwani, CEO of BNC Network: “As the demand for hotel rooms, housing and the need to expand infrastructure increases, one can see activity in a number of construction sites across Dubai. Crude price that is currently hovering over $60 per barrel, up from $40 to $50 a few months ago, is going to lift investor sentiment and will encourage the government and the private sector to invest in new projects or start held-over projects.”


According to a major law firm, Al Tamimi & Co.” If Dubai and the UAE can learn from the experience of previous Expo’s, it could move the country into a different level internationally and allow it to serve a wider community than what it is currently catering for. Potential areas of expansion include the areas of trade, manufacturing and service industries, including tourism.”

And According to The National, “The value of the UAE’s construction industry is set to increase to Dh181 billion next year from about Dh162bn this year, the company said. BMI Research also predicts growth of more than 6 per cent for the following three years as Dubai ramps up spending ahead of Expo 2020, but a fall-off of 2 to 3 per cent a year after 2020.

It said that Dubai’s planned projects in real estate and energy are “progressing well”, but said that Abu Dhabi had been more exposed to the downturn in commodities as government and private sector spending were more reliant on the oil and gas market.”

So what happens after Expo 2020?

According to a report by CNN, “Dubbed “District 2020,” the area which the expo occupies in Dubai South will undergo extensive redevelopments before reopening in October 2021 — not long after the expo closes in April that year.”

Some buildings will remain unchanged, including the Santiago Calatrava-designed UAE National Pavilion, modeled on the wings of a falcon. Others will be transformed on the inside: The Sustainability Pavilion, for instance, will live on as a center for child and scientific education. The Dubai World Trade Center Conference and Exhibition Center will also remain once the expo closes.

Over 80% of the 200 hectare site will be retained according to documents released as part of the announcement, and planners hope District 2020 will more than double in size to become a city in its own right.

“District 2020 will continue to carry forward Expo 2020’s mission of connecting people,” says Marjan Faraidooni, an official specializing in Expo 2020 legacy.

Undoubtedly, expos have significant impact on the overall economy of a country across different sectors, given that expos are quite reliant on construction, it will have a direct positive impact on the construction industry.